Physics and our View of the World
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When the ground moves, it creates ripples on the land. Earthquakes that occur at sea create ripples in the water that cause tsunamis. One of the worst seismological disasters of the modern age happened at Christmas when an earthquake under the ocean causes a massive tsunami, killing around , people. Physics can predict, based on the size of seismological activity, the impact on land and ocean of such activity. As with the other hard sciences, physics can be broken down into two broad groups - applied physics and theoretical physics.
The latter is concerned with devising theories about how the universe or any atoms or molecules within it might function. Applied physics is the practical use of materials, typically used in engineering projects. With each new discovery, new science and new technology, there will always be issues for physics to understand and deconstruct. This is both a theoretical and an applied science. It's important n concert halls and theaters, for example, to design the architecture so that it makes the best use of the sound, make it carry far, and channel noise without too much feedback or echo.
It's been used to great effect in modern churches too for the same reason. Although invisible, sound occurs as waves, spanning out from a central point. They are the reverberating of aerial particles reacting to sound. It is not just about music or architectural use either. The science of acoustics also includes other aspects of sound engineering - the creation of sound and control of sound reduction. Other uses include SONAR - used by civilian and military shipping to detect anomalies at and under the sea, medical use with ultrasound scanning, and even seismology. Astronomy is one of the oldest forms of modern physics and existed long before physics was even a science.
For most of recorded history and even before that, humans have been interested in the stars, their relative positions, and using them to track the seasons. The stars and planets inspired imagination and are at the center of some of our most enduring myths. But astronomy today is very different.leondumoulin.nl/language/tall/birmingham-murders-1888.php
Physics - Wikipedia
It is the study of objects in the sky moons, planets, comets, asteroids, stars, galaxies, black holes - their movement and motion, position relative to our own planet, star or galaxy, chemistry and makeup, and mathematical principles. It was once tied to astrology but today this is mysticism and despite looking at positions of astrological bodies, there is no science to it Often used interchangeably with astronomy, there are several key differences between astronomy and astrophysics although experts in the two groups very often work together on the same projects.
The main difference between astronomy and astrophysics is that the former concerns measurements, distances, movement and relationships. The latter used physical principles and mathematical measurements to understand those relationships - attraction and repellence, gravity, combustion within stars and other physical principles However, astrophysicists need to understand astronomy to work out why extraterrestrial bodies have such relationships and astronomers use data from astrophysics to predict or plot paths.
Atoms form all matter - organic and inorganic and are the building blocks of material across the known universe. Therefore, the work of atomic physics is to study atoms They will look at such elements as the number of electrons, how they change in response to stimuli, and the structure of the electron cloud. Although many people who work in this field are considered to be concerned with nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons, that is too narrow and simple a view of atomic physics; nuclear physics is one area of atomic physics and in many ways quite separate from it.
In more recent decades, it has forged stronger links with quantum mechanics as the research there has developed and shown further applications. Physical sciences use math to understand and explain nature whereas biological sciences want to understand how a biological system will function. These are overlapping areas and biophysics is the branch designed to bridge the gap between biology and physics, it is a theoretical framework and an applied science that uses physics to understand biological systems.
100 years on: the pictures that changed our view of the universe
A typical example is understanding physical mechanics of how a molecule is created, the various parts of a cell or organism work in a physical level, including the neurological system including electrical impulses transmitted between the brain and organs, immune system, and other structures. It uses principles from math and chemistry as well as biology and physics This is an area of physics and mathematics that examines behavior of systems 24 , their sensitivity to even minor change, and how they react to that change.
It is a cross-disciplinary theoretical approach that may apply to almost any other science. Its core philosophy is that in spite of apparent randomness, there are systems in place, and patterns, that keep equilibrium. Any change, no matter how small, can affect the whole in profound ways - this is called The Butterfly Effect, the idea that a butterfly flapping its wings in one geographical location can cause weather systems to begin on the other side of the planet.
The theory can allow us to predict weather patterns but is also the main reason why meteorologists can get it so wrong - minor fluctuations can change the direction of a weather front. There are more links between physics and chemistry than atoms.
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Chemical physics fuses both sciences and incorporates such mutual areas as atomics, molecular physics and solid state chemistry. This is an umbrella term for anything with a mutual interest in chemistry and physics but does not include physical chemistry which is a related but slightly different subdiscipline and more a branch of chemistry than physics. Chemical physics studies the chemical reactions of substances through applied atomic physics. It's interested in of electrons, nuclei, and atoms and molecules. Physical chemistry examines the physical nature of chemistry and chemical molecules and compounds.
Related to mathematical physics, computational physics is the use of powerful mathematical and other models to test physics and other theories with a physical angle. This is one of the oldest subdisciplines of physics that uses information technology Many have argued whether it is theoretical or applied as it takes theories and tests them. However, it is also a practical use in collecting data from physical sources. The SETI program uses computational physics looking for signs of extraterrestrial life, filtering out natural background noise.
Sadly, it has never been replicated and although our best chance of discovering extraterrestrial life will require powerful computing, we have not achieved it yet.
Arguably, this is the discipline that physics was before it became physics the science. Cosmology is related to astronomy and astrophysics but instead of looking at mathematical probabilities, physical structure, motions, relationships, gravity et al, it looks at all of this data for evidence of the formation of the universe, tracing its evolutionary history back to the Big Bang and those precious few seconds after the universe's formation.
It also seeks to work out when the universe will end and what will happen next. Simply, it is the study of the universe on the largest possible scale. This is the area of physics and astronomy concerned with string and superstring theory, dark matter and energy, and the theories concerning the possibility of the multiverse Temperature is an important influence of physical material.
Liquid matter turns solid when cold enough and to gas when hot enough. The simple physical effect is the slowing down and compacting of physical material. Cryophysics and cryogenics go beyond merely the study of temperature - it is an examination of the effects of extremely low temperatures, typically working in the Kelvin scale rather than Celsius or Fahrenheit. In popular science, cryogenics is the belief that the human body can be reduced to these temperatures artificially to preserve organic material and prevent natural decomposition.
Quantum Physics, Philosophy, and Understanding Our World
But cryophysics and cryogenics are about far more than the preservation of organic matter - it is about studying properties and effects on both organic and inorganic matter. Crystalline solids have an interesting molecular bonding that differs from all other matter. While the analysis of the structure of the physical material is not unique in crystallography, how such materials as diamond functions and fits together can help us understand other matter The science grew as a result of the discovery of laser and its many industrial, research, and medical applications.
It has many applications today in biomedical research, chemistry, physics, but also in areas we never perceived such as genetics and the treatment of diseases such as cancer, all because we can manufacture tools with precision and use the unique structure of crystals. If two sciences were never supposed to go together, those branches would be physics and economics. Yet both use mathematics at their core. Econophysics is the use of physical principles, particularly those that are mathematical in nature including statistics 29 , statistical probability, stochastic processes probability and randomness and even chaos theory see above as applied to unpredictable problems.
In fact, the use of physics and a modeling system goes back to the birth of classical liberalism and that method of economics that rose around the Industrial Revolution. It allows for a non-static system in economics, one subject to irrational thoughts and actions on the part of the elements i.
The science of electronics is not the actual devices, but the science that makes them possible. This is a subdiscipline of physics that examines all elements of the development of devices that use electricity, but it also looks at the properties of electrons when operating in a vacuum, through gases, or the effect and impact of conducting material. It is concerned with elements of an electronic device including data transmission and storage, heat, transistors, LEDs and other diodes, circuits and circuit boards, and technologies designed to connect to them.
The main challenge of electronics at present is to continue to increase in functionality while reducing power consumption.
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This subarea of physics examines electromagnetic force. This is an interaction that takes place between electrically charged particles, creating electromagnetic, electrical and magnetic fields and light. Electromagnetism can manifest itself in many ways with lightning being one of the most common, but it is not the only example. Electromagnetism is vital for both organic and inorganic objects and their functions.
Electricity and magnetism were long considered two separate but complementary forces, but we know now that they are related and part of the same thing, hence why this subdiscipline is required - to study the causes and effects of electromagnetism in everyday use.